ISSN 2398-2993       Transformation '' not found.

Trueperella pyogenes

obovis

Synonym(s): Corynebacterium pyogenes, Actinomyces pyogenes, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Bacillus pyogenes


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Domain: Bacteria.
  • Phylum/Class: Actinobacteria.
  • Order: Actinomycetales.
  • Family: Actinomycetaceae.
  • Genus: Trueperella.
  • Species: Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes formerly, Arcanobacterium pyogenes).

Etymology

  • Trueperella: after the German microbiologist Hans Georg Trüper.
  • Pyogenes: meaning “pus-producing”.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • A commensal of the skin and mucous membranes of many animals.
  • Can also survive in the environment (in a non-replicative form), eg soil for a few weeks. 

Lifecycle

  • Assumed to only be able to replicate in an environment that contains ample amounts of peptides, fermentable carbohydrates, hemin and inositol, eg within animal hosts only.
  • Like other bacteria T. pyogenes can form biofilms on mucous membranes, which may also promote infection opportunities.

Transmission

  • Routes of transmission remain poorly understood.
  • Most infections probably occur via endogenous mechanisms.
  • Exogenous routes have been considered, eg between animals and on infected equipment.
  • Mainly through an injury, eg wounds on skin, teats and interdigital space, bites by flies Cattle flies and larvae: overview, (Hydrotaea irritans), possibly bites by ticks Ticks: overview, and also through the navel.

Pathological effects

  • Suppurative infections.
  • Often associated with other gram-negative anaerobes, eg Fusobacterium necrophorum, Peptococcus. indolicus and Prevotella melaninogenica.
  • In cattle, infection with T. pyogenes is associated with mastitis, in particular summer mastitis, metritis and endometritis as well as liver abscesses and interdigital phlegmon Mastitis: Streptococcus dysgalactiae .
  • Foot rot Foot Rot.
  • Metritis/endometritis.
  • Liver abscesses.
  • Abortion Abortion and stillbirths: overview.

Other Host Effects

  • Inflammation: recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages.

Control

Control via animal

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotics: T. pyogenes is generally susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, but resistant to sulphonamides, and increasingly so to tetracycline:
    • Beta-lactams.
    • Tetracyclines.
    • Macrolides.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Anti-inflammatory drugs: overview.
  • Drainage of abscesses.
  • Prostaglandins for uterine infections Uterine infection: overview.

Control via environment

  • Grass management to reduce plants likely to cause wounds to teats.
  • Clean, dry calving areas.

Vaccination

  • Work is ongoing to research and develop vaccines:
    • Liver abscess vaccines containing T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum.
    • Metritis vaccines containing T. pyogenes, F. necophorum and E. Coli.

Other countermeasures

  • Removing cows affected with mastitis from the herd to stop spread.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rzewuska M, Kwiecien E, Chrobak-Chmiel D et al (2019) Pathogenicity and virulence of Trueperella pyogenes: a review. Int J Mol Sci 20 (11), 2737 PubMed.
  • Wareth G, El-Diasty M, Melzer F et al (2018) Trueperella pyogenes and Brucella abortus coinfection in a dog and cat on a dairy farm in Egypt with recurrent cases of mastitis and abortion. Vet Med Int, 2056436 PubMed.
  • Rogovskyy A S, Lawhon S, Kuczmanski K et al (2018) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from ruminants. J Vet Diagn Invest 30 (3), 348-353 PubMed.
  • Moreno L Z, Matajira C E C, da Costa B L P et al (2017) Characterization of porcine Trueperella pyogenes by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling in Sao Paulo State. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 51, 49-53 PubMed.
  • Wisselink H J, Cornelissen J B W J & van der Wal F J (2017) Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR for detection of four bacterial agents commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. BMC Vet Res 13 (1), 221 PubMed
  • Nagib S, Rau J, Sammra O, Lämmler C et al (2014) Identification of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PLoS One 9 (8), e104654 PubMed.
  • Zhang W, Meng X & Wang J (2013) Sensitive and rapid detection of Trueperella pyogenes using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. J Microbiol Methods 93 (2), 124-126 PubMed.
  • Yassin A F, Hupfer H, Siering C, Schumann P (2011) Comparative chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies on the genus Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1982 emend. Lehnen et al. 2006: proposal for Trueperella gen. nov. and emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61 (6), 1265-1274 PubMed
  • Levy C E, Pedro R J, Nowakonski Avon et al (2009) Arcanobacterium pyogenes Sepsis in Farmer, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 15 (7), 1131-1132 CDC
  • Dias C A G, Cauduro P F, Mezzari A & Cantarelli V (1996) Actinomyces pyogenes isolated from a subcutaneous abscess in a dairy farmer. Clin Microbiol News 18 (5), 38-40.
  • Gahrn-Hansen B & Frederiksen W (1992) Human infections with Actinomyces pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes). Diag Microbiol Infect Dis 15 (4), 349-354 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Nagaraja T G (2013) Arcanobacterium. In: Veterinary Microbiology. 3rd edn. Ed: McVey D S, Kennedy M & Chengappa M M. John Wiley & Sons, USA. pp 203-205.
  • Quinn P J, Markey B K, Leonard F C, Fitzpatrick E S, Fanning S & Hartigan P J (2011) Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 245–257.
  • Songer J G & Post K W (2005) Veterinary Microbiology. In: Bacterial and Fungal Agents of Animal Disease. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 84–91.
  • CABI Invasive Species Compendium. Website: www.cabi.org/isc.
  • Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria (online) Trueperella Pyogenes. Website: www.vetbact.org.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code