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  • Excision of mammary gland(s).


Surgical treatment of mammary neoplasia
  • Local excision :
    • 'Lumpectomy'.
    • Shelling out tumor from gland.
    • Suitable for small pea size nodules (less than 2 cm).
  • Simple mastectomy :
    • Tumor removal with associated gland.
  • Partial radical mastectomy :
    • → Removal of tumor with glands associated by vascular/lymphatic drainage and node.
  • Radical mastectomy :
    • → Removal of tumor with all ipsilateral glands and nodes.
  • Bilateral radical mastectomy :
    • Removal of all mammary tissue.


  • Removal of large, ulcerated masses - more comfortable for patient.
  • Early surgical intervention probably improves prognosis.


  • Inflammatory carcinoma carries a very poor prognosis and dehiscence of the wound or recurrence/death occurs soon post-operatively - surgery not recommended.


Materials required

Minimum equipment

  • Standard surgical kit.

Minimum consumables

  • Drains .
  • Additional swabs as may bleed significantly.


  • 15 min for large clip.
  • Routine surgical preparation.



  • Recurrence of neoplasia due to incomplete excision.


World Health Organization staging protocol
  • Prognostic basis unproven.
  • Prognostic markers controversial.
Unfavorable prognostic markers
  • Histopathological type: sarcoma greater than carcinoma greater than adenocarcinoma.
  • Tumor volume.
  • Rapid growth rate.
  • Infiltration (abdominal muscle, skin).
  • Ulceration.
  • Distant metastasis.
  • Lymphatic or vascular invasion.
Equivocal prognostic markers
  • Regional lymph node enlargement/metastasis.
  • Location of affected gland.
  • Supraradical versus conservative surgery.

Reasons for treatment failure

  • Tumor recurrence due to high malignancy or inadequate resection.
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