Bladder: polypoid cystitis

Polypoid cystitis

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  • Polypoid cystitis is an uncommon urinary tract disorder of dogs that causes hematuria and other signs of lower urinary tract inflammation.
  • It is thought that chronic inflammation in the urinary bladder may lead to epithelial and stromal proliferation, eventually leading to polyp formation.
  • Typically, the polyps consist of proliferative epithelium surrounding inflamed, hemorrhagic, connective tissue stroma. Grossly, the bladder mucosa may be thrown up into folds or may have villous mucosal projections up to several cm in length. In some cases, the bladder wall simply appears abnormally thickened, but histopathologic examination reveals typical polypoid changes.
  • Polypoid cystitis usually develops in the cranial ventral bladder wall, whereas transitional cell carcinomas more commonly arise from the bladder neck region. Grossly, it is impossible to distinguish polyps from carcinomas with complete confidence and histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis is required.


Clinical signs

  • Hematuria, often at the end of the urine stream.
  • Pollakiuria, stranguria, nocturia, inappropriate urination.

Differential diagnosis



  • The prognosis after surgical resection of polyps and surrounding bladder wall was reported in one study to be excellent. The prognosis after cystoscopic removal of polyps has not yet been thoroughly evaluated.

Expected response to treatment

  • Complete resolution of hematuria, stranguria, pollakiuria and any other signs of lower urinary tract irritation.

Reasons for treatment failure

  • Failure to remove all of the polyps.
  • Recurrence of polyps.
  • Persistent or recurrent urinary tract infection in the absence of polyps.
  • Other, perhaps undiagnosed lower urinary tract disorders present (neoplasia, cystic calculi).
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