- Causes : an inflammation of and around the sebaceous glands leading to loss of these structures.
- Signs : dry skin, scaling and hair loss.
- Certain breeds are predisposed, but has been seen in over 60 breeds plus crossbreeds.
- Etiology and pathogenesis unclear.
- Treatment : shampoos, sprays, immunomodulatory therapy and antibacterials.
- Prognosis : guarded but variable.
Long coated breeds
- (Figs. 1-2)
- Lesions first observed along dorsal midline.
- May affect specific areas - dorsal nasal planum, top of head, dorsal neck, trunk and tail.
- Initially non pruritic, may not progress beyond this stage.
- Progression results in the formation of tightly adherent silver-white scale, follicular casts around hair shafts, and small tufts of matted hair.
- Predisposed to secondary bacterial folliculitis at this stage.
- (Fig. 3).
- Affected areas enlarge peripherally, to become polycyclic, and occasionally coalesce.
- Fine, white non-adherent scale.
- Secondary pyoderma uncommon.
- Other causes of pyoderma [Skin: bacterial skin disease - overview].
- Demodicosis [Skin: demodectic mange].
- Dermatophytosis .
- Sterile granuloma/pyogranuloma syndrome.
- Leishmaniosis .
- Keratinization defects .
- Endocrine skin disease (later stage of disease).
- Response to therapy varies somewhat, depending on the severity or chronicity of the disease and on the breed of animal.
- Prognosis is poorest when sebaceous glands have been completely destroyed.
- Evidence suggests that treatment with cyclosporin A, alone or in combination with topical therapy, reduces macrophagic and lymphocytic inflammation and may achieve some regeneration of sebaceous glands.
- Some dogs have cyclic patterns of spontaneous improvement and worsening.