- Very rare condition in dogs.
- Cause : in humans is a paraneoplastic dermatosis usually associated with glucagonomas, in dogs associated with several hepatopathies, diabetes, Cushing's syndrome.
- Signs : dermatological signs at typical sites (feet, muzzle, axilla, inguinal, anogenital area); signs of underlying hepatic pathology, diabetes mellitus.
- Diagnosis : signs, laboratory tests of hepatic function, skin histopathology.
- Treatment : management of underlying disease, symptomatic care.
- Prognosis : poor.
- (Fig. 1) and exudation around muzzle, feet, perineal (axilla and groin) regions.
- Fissured footpads.
- Secondary infection common and may be fungal.
- Abnormal hepatic size (hepatomegaly if diabetes mellitus, often small in cirrhosis).
- Pallor (often associated with anemia).
- Skin lesions may precede signs of liver disease by some time (months).
- Drug eruption [Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis].
- Pemphigus folliaceus .
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis .
- Poor: survival times are poor (median 5 months from development of lesions) and underlying pathology is usually severe.
- Diabetes mellitus may not be controllable.
- Disease is incurable.
Expected response to treatment
- Reduction in pain/pruritus from skin lesions.
- Reduction in hepatic enzymes (if raised) and [bile acids].
- Reduction in [blood glucose].
Reasons for treatment failure
- Response is usually poor.