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  • Literally means abnormal growth of cartilage and results in disproportionate dwarfism.
  • Cause : genetic cartilage abnormality.
  • Several dog breeds display this as standard conformation, eg Dachshund, Bassett hound.
  • Signs : limb shortening + flared metaphyses, depressed nasal bridge + shortened maxilla → crowding of teeth .
  • Diagnosis : clinical signs.
  • Treatment : none.
  • Prognosis : may be normal, or guarded if congenital defect.


Clinical signs

  • Shortened limbs (especially hindlimbs).
  • Domed skull and flattened face.
  • Tongue protrusion.
  • Ascites.
  • Muscle wastage.

Differential diagnosis



  • May be normal in some breeds therefore prognosis good.
  • Animals with congenital defects have guarded prognosis.
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