- Literally means abnormal growth of cartilage and results in disproportionate dwarfism.
- Cause : genetic cartilage abnormality.
- Several dog breeds display this as standard conformation, eg Dachshund, Bassett hound.
- Signs : limb shortening + flared metaphyses, depressed nasal bridge + shortened maxilla → crowding of teeth .
- Diagnosis : clinical signs.
- Treatment : none.
- Prognosis : may be normal, or guarded if congenital defect.
- Shortened limbs (especially hindlimbs).
- Domed skull and flattened face.
- Tongue protrusion.
- Muscle wastage.
- Pituitary dwarfism [Congenital panhypopituitarism] (although pituitary dwarfs appear normal at birth).
- May be normal in some breeds therefore prognosis good.
- Animals with congenital defects have guarded prognosis.