- Cause : heritable failure of normal testicular descent.
- Incidence: 1-15% of males.
- Signs : may be none except absence of testicles in scrotum, or signs related to secondary complications of retention.
- Diagnosis : imaging or indentification at laparotomy.
- Treatment : bilateral orchidectomy.
- Prognosis : significantly increased risk of testicular neoplasia, (particularly Sertoli cell tumors).
- If intra-abdominal, increased risk of testicular torsion.
Print off the owner factsheet Cryptorchidism in the dog (retained testicle) to give to your client.
- Absence of one or both testicles in scrotum.
Diagnosis may be complicated by incomplete history pertaining to neutering
- Palpable abdominal mass.
- Signs associated with abdominal mass.
- Feminization or pancytopenia if hyperfunctional sertoli cell tumor present.
- Testicular torsion presents as an acute abdominal pain and large, turgid, moveable abdominal mass. Affected dogs may present in shock.
- Intersex abnormality with bilateral retained testes and XX phenotype. Well known in some breeds, eg Spaniel.
- Previous unrecorded castration.
- Incomplete castration, ie removal of one intra-abdominal testes while scrotal testicle in situ.
- Good overall.
- Significantly increased risk of testicular tumor, especially Sertoli cell, (most are benign).
- Larger testicles usually neoplastic - always perform histopathology.
- Stable animals with torsed testicles usually recover uneventfully after testicle removal.
Reasons for treatment failure
- Failure to find/remove ectopic testicle.
- Poor ligation security → hemorrhage.
- Failure to determine severe systemic effect of hyperestrogenism from Sertoli cell tumor.
- Metastasis from malignant testis (rare).