PIVKA

Thrombotest • Proteins Induced by Vitamin K

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Overview

  • Prolongation of coagulation time absence of or abnormal forms of vitamin-K dependent Factors II, VII and X.

Uses

Alone

  • Evaluation of coagulation system in cases of suspected Vitamin K deficiency or antagonism, in combination with other tests.

Result data

Normal (reference) values

  • Reference values may differ slightly between laboratories.
  • Example of reference interval: 18-25 seconds.

Abnormal values

  • Prolongation of PIVKA clotting times may occur with:
  • Cholangiohepatitis  [Liver: cholangitis]  .
  • Chronic liver disease of any cause    .
  • Small intestinal bacterial metabolism disruption (overgrowth, prolonged antibiotic therapy).
  • Biliary obstruction.
  • Portosystemic vascular anomalies.
  • Systemic neoplasia.
  • - Protein losing enteropathy    .
  • Rodenticide toxicity    .
  • Inherited deficiencies of Factor VII, II or X.

Errors and Artifacts

  • Artifactual prolongation may occur if there has been clotting of the specimen that has not been detected; or if there is dilution of the specimen because of excess anticoagulant compared to the volume of blood.
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