- Toxocara cati : benzimidazoles more effective than piperazine against larval stages therefore prevent fecal output for longer period.
- Aleurostrongylus [Aelurostrongylus abstrusus] treatment with fenbendazole .
Drugs for Nematodes
- Disrupt parasite energy metabolism by binding to tubulin (required for uptake of nutrients).
- Doses may need to be repeated in kittens or when treating specific infections.
- Effective against larval and adult roundworms, some also ovicidal.
- Products containing benzimidazoles or probenzimidazoles are labeled 1-BZ.
- Fenbendazole : lungworm ( Aleurostrongylus [Aelurostrongylus abstrusus] ). GI nematodes - Toxocara cati , Toxascaris leonina , Ancylostoma and Taenia spp (tapeworm) not effective against Dipylidium .
- Mebendazole : gastrointestinal nematodes, Echinococcus and Taenia . Need to treat longer if treating tapeworms.
- Praziquantel : preferred treatment for Echinococcus .
- Febantel .
- Nicotinic receptor agonists interfere with parasite nerve transmission → muscular paralysis and expulsion.
- Restores depressed T-cell function.
Low therapeutic index - toxic signs include salivation and muscle tremors.
- Levamisole hydrochloride * : lungworms ( Aleurostrongylus abstrusus , Capillaria aerophilia ), immune stimulation, heartworm treatment (seek specialist advice). Unlicensed in cat.
- Dichlorvos : roundworms, hookworms. Safer compounds are available.
- Interfere with parasite nerve transmission → neuromuscular paralysis.
- Effective against adults and larval gastrointestinal roundworms.
- Pyrantel embonate .
- Piperazine : modifies neurotransmission → relaxation and expulsion; for some roundworms, ie Toxocara , Toxascaris and Uncinaria ; little activity against larval Toxocara in kittens; ineffective against lungworms or tapeworms. Toxic in cats with overdose (muscle fasciculations, ataxia, salivation).
- Diethylcarbamazine : piperazine derivative that acts in nicotine-like manner causing paralysis. Used for heartworm prophylaxis in dogs and has ascaricide activity. Has been used to treat Spirocerea lupi at very high doses.