- It is the most common mycobacterial disease of dogs in Australia.
- Canine leproid granuloma syndrome (CLGS), or canine leprosy, was first described in a Boxer and a Bullmastiff from Zimbabwe in 1973. Reports of similar disease appeared in Australia soon afterwards.
- Cause : fastidious mycobacterial species probably transmitted by biting insects.
- Signs : single or multiple skin nodules commonly affecting head and ears.
- Diagnosis : cytology or histological examination with special staining.
- Treatment : observation; antimicrobials; surgical excision.
- Prognosis : good in uncomplicated cases, self cure, surgical cure.
- The classical distribution of multiple lesions, particularly in an at-risk breed, is strongly suggestive of CLGS.
- The nodules are hard, painless, and vary in size from 2 mm up to 5 cm in diameter.
- Lesions can appear anywhere on the dog, although are usually on the head and typically on the dorsal ear fold.
- Small nodules are detected as hard subcutaneous lumps.
- Larger nodules may show superficial hair loss and very large lesions may ulcerate.
- Multiple lesions may be disfiguring and cause irritation if secondarily infected with Staphylococcus intermedius.
- Other inflammatory or neoplastic causes of cutaneous nodules.
- Other mycobacterial species causing skin disease in dogs.
- Many cases are self-limiting and in these the nodular skin lesions regress spontaneously, typically within 1-3 months.